Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
From Kazakhstan Encyclopedia
Template:Infobox settlement Template:Chinese Ili or Yili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture (Template:Zh; Template:Lang-kk; Template:Lang-ug; Template:Lang-dng) in northernmost Xinjiang is the only Kazakh autonomous prefecture in China.
- 1 Geography and coordinates
- 2 Administrative divisions
- 3 History
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Tourism
- 6 Transport
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Geography and coordinates
- Capital: Yining (Gulja)
- Geographic coordinates: 79º50'30″Template:Spaced ndash84º56'50″ East, 42º14'16″Template:Spaced ndash44º50'30″ North
The Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture is west of Mongolia, south of Russia and east of Kazakhstan. Its foreign boundary is Template:Convert, generally located between Altai Mountains and the main range of Tian Shan, occupying most of the Dzungarian Basin in northern Xinjiang and the Ili River Basin.
The prefecture-level city of Karamay is completely surrounded and divided by the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture but is not part of it.
Template:Main As a Sub-provincial Autonomous Prefecture, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture is administratively divided into three parts -- Altay Prefecture and Tacheng Prefectures, together with a directly administrated county-level prefecture that includes Yining City, 2 other county-level cities, 7 counties, and 1 autonomous county (see Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China#Levels). The directly administrated region is exactly coterminous with the historical area that in the past was often called by Russians and Westerners as Kulja or Kuldja.
Before the advent of the Qin dynasty (221Template:NbspBCTemplate:Snd206Template:NbspBC), Ili was occupied by the Ussuns, a tributary tribe of the Huns. The Ussuns were driven away in the 6th century AD by the northern Xiongnu, who established the Turkic Khaganate in 552. Later this Khulja territory became a dependency of Dzungaria. During the Tang dynasty (618Template:Ndash907), the khanate became the Protectorate General to Pacify the West of the Tang Empire.
The Uyghur Khaganate, and in the 12th century the Kara-Khitai, took possession of the area in turn. Genghis Khan conquered Kulja in the 13th century, and the Mongol Khans resided in the valley of the Ili. It is supposed that the Oirats conquered it at the end of the 16th or the beginning of the 17th century.Template:Citation needed
The Oirats, or more precisely Dzungars, controlled both Dzungaria and the Ili Basin until 1755 as the Dzungar Khanate, when it was annexed by the Manchu-run Qing dynasty under the Qianlong Emperor. Having defeated the Dzungars in the Dzungarian and Ili Basins, as well as the Afaqi Khojas in Kashgaria, the Qing court decided to make the Ili basin the main base of their control in Xinjiang.
In the 1760s, the Qing built nine fortified towns (Template:Lang) in the Ili Basin:
|Original Chinese name||Chinese||Turki (Uyghur) name||Modern name of the location||Notes|
|Huiyuan Cheng||Template:Lang||Template:Lang||Huiyuan Town (Template:Lang) in Huocheng County||The Old Huiyuan was the residence of the General of Ili from 1765 to 1866. The New Huiyuan was the residence of the General of Ili from 1894 to 1912. Also known as New Kulja, Manchu Kulja, or Ili at the time.|
|Ningyuan Cheng||Template:Lang||Template:Lang||Yining City||Also was known as Old Kulja or Taranchi Kulja. County seat of Ningyuan County (1888–1914) and Yining County (1914–1952)|
|Huining Cheng||Template:Lang||Template:Lang||Bayandai Town (Template:Lang) within Yining City, some 10 to 18 km to the west of the Yining center city|
|Taleqi Cheng||Template:Lang||Template:Lang||Within Huocheng County|
|Zhande Cheng||Template:Lang||Template:Lang||Qingshuihe Town (Template:Lang) in Huocheng County|
|Guangren Cheng||Template:Lang||Template:Lang||Lucaogou Town (Template:Lang) in Huocheng County, NE of Qingshuihe|
|Gongchen Cheng||Template:Lang||Template:Lang||Khorgas City (Template:Lang)|
|Xichun Cheng||Template:Lang||Template:Lang||Area commonly referred to as Chengpanzi (Template:Lang) in the Hanbin Township (Template:Lang) within Yining City, a few km west of the city center|
|Suiding Cheng||Template:Lang||Template:Lang||Shuiding Town (Template:Lang), county seat of Huocheng County since 1966||General of Ili's residence 1762–1765 and 1883–1894, when it became known as New/Manchu/Chinese Kulja. County seat of Suiding County (1888–1965) and Shuiding County (1965–1966). Renamed Shuiding in 1965.|
Huiyuan Cheng, as the seat of the General of Ili, the chief commander of the Qing troops in Xinjiang, became the administrative capital of the region. It was provided with a large penal establishment and a strong garrison. This city was called New Kulja, Manhcu Kulja, Chinese Kulja, or Ili by the Russians and Westerners, to distinguish it from Nigyuan/Yining, known as Old Kulja or Taranchi Kulja.
During the insurrection of 1864 the Dungans and Taranchis of the area formed the Taranchi Sultanate. Huiyuan (Manchu Kulja) was the last Qing fortress in the Ili Valley to fall to the rebels. The insurgent Dungans massacred most of Manchu Kulja's inhabitants; Governor General Mingsioi (Ming Xü) assembled his family and staff in his mansion, and blew it up, dying under its ruins.
The sultanate led to the occupation of the Ili basin (Kulja in contemporary Western terms) by the Russians in 1871. Ten years later the territory was restored to China, and its boundary with Russia was assigned in accordance to the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881).
After Chinese authority was restored, a new Huiyuan Town was built, some Template:Convert north of the old Huiyuan site.
The Republic of China
The People's Republic of China
In 1949, Ili was made a special area (Template:Lang) of Xinjiang, with one city and nine counties, and was upgraded to a city in 1952. On NovemberTemplate:Nbsp27, 1954, the Ili Autonomous Prefecture was established to include the prefectures of Ili, Altay, and Tacheng. The Ili Prefecture was abolished in 1955. Its one city and nine counties are now under the direct control of the autonomous prefecture.
- Han-Chinese: 35.22%
- Kazakhs: 26.88%
- Uyghurs: 21.53%
- Hui: 11.7%
- Mongols: 1.78%
- Xibe: 1.5%
- Russians: 1.2%
- Uzbek: 0.9%
- Tatars: 0.5%
Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture is a famous tourist destination for its relatively humid climate, which earned its reputation as 'wetland in Central Asia'. Major tourist attractions include Narati Grassland, Guozigou and Kanas Lake. In 2015 alone, Ili has seen over 25 million travellers and earned over 19 billion CNY (US$2.92 billion) tourism receipts.
Road and Railway
An extensive road network is being built across the prefecture for economic development. In 2015, 66 million passengers travelled on road.
Ili Kazak's 8 functioning ports of entry are:
- With Kazakhstan
- Aqimbek (Template:Lang) of Altay Prefecture
- Bakhtu (Template:Lang), Template:Convert from Tacheng; another primary point or port
- Dulat (Template:Lang), in Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County: under Ili
- Jeminay (Template:Lang) of Altay Prefecture；another primary point or port
- Khorgas (Template:Lang), in Huocheng County; under Ili; a primary Chinese "national" border crossing point or port of entry
- Muzart (Template:Lang), in Zhaosu County: directly controlled by Ili; another primary point or port
- With Mongolia
- Henry Lansdell, "Russian Central Asia: Including Kuldja, Bokhara, Khiva and Merv". Full text available at Google Books; there is also a 2001 facsimile reprint of the 1885 edition, ISBN 1-4021-7762-3. (Chapters XIV-XVI describe Lansdell visit to the area in the early 1880s, soon after the Russian withdrawal). Template:En icon
- Official site (in Simplified Chinese)
- Subdivision info (in Simplified Chinese)
- A TALE OF TWO CITIES: NEW MUSEUMS FOR YINING AND URUMQI "CHINA HERITAGE NEWSLETTER", China Heritage Project, The Australian National University. ISSN 1833-8461. No. 3, September 2005. (Talks about Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture Museum in Yining).
Template:Other ethnic minorities autonomy in the People's Republic of China
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